North vs. South. Brother against brother. The War of Northern Aggression. The Civil War, over 150 years in our nation's past, still weighs upon American culture and politics to this day. This special edition of Life Explores brings readers a thorough overview of what remains the largest, longest and most bloody war set on American soil. This special edition covers every facet of the war from the political and cultural divides that sparked the war, to life on the front lines for soldiers, slavery, and the war at home, to a country, once again united and transformed. Whether you're a Civil War buff or just in search of a little more information, The Civil War, On the Front Lines will bring you a thorough overview of the war that has continued to affect America.
A GROWING FISSURE
America in 1860: A Nation on the Move • Less than 100 years after the country’s founding, its economy was soaring, thanks to inventions ranging from the sewing machine to the hydraulic turbine
THE LARGEST AMERICAN CITIES IN 1860 • The 1860 U.S. Census ranked these the top 10 cities in the United States, according to population. Seven were located in the North; Baltimore and St. Louis were in border states. Only New Orleans was in the South.
Two Nations in One: North vs. South • In spite of robust economic growth, cultural and political differences had formed a rift among the citizenry
A Divisive National Issue • In the United States, there was little consensus on the slavery question from the time the first Africans were brought ashore in 1619 to the day South Carolina seceded in 1860.
Slavery Comes to America • Southern agriculture hinged on the slave workforce
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN
The Underground Railroad • Secret routes and safe houses
The Union Is Dissolved • South Carolina seceded from the United States of America and tipped the scales to war
A Special Edition • Breaking the news
First Fire on Fort Sumter • On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces attacked a U.S. Army post, and the Civil War began
FRIENDS, THEN FOES
The Diary of Mary Chesnut • The Civil War’s opening combat was witnessed from a Charleston, South Carolina, rooftop
Organizing the Troops • North and South mobilized as four more states seceded and the Confederate capital was established
The War Sparks a Boom in the North • To cover the $2.5 million a day it cost to wage war, the government introduced tariffs and printed money
A CONTROVERSIAL FIRST LADY
The Confederate Economy Crashes Quickly • Southerners endured the impact of runaway inflation
A Favorite of the Czar, and the South • Lucy Holcombe Pickens, the First Lady of South Carolina
“I Just Like to Be Free” • Slaves were affected by the same shortages that befell many Southerners
BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER
Soldiers North and South Rush to Arms • Military life quickly lost its romance as troops battled fatigue and boredom
WHO WAS A “TYPICAL” CIVIL WAR SOLDIER?
Sworn into Service • Four million American men said goodbye to those at home
“They Met Death Coolly, Bravely” • Black troops took up arms for the North
“No Two Keep the Same Step” • Johnny Reb and Billy Yank learned the ways of war
Handling Military Discipline • The rigor of the soldier’s life was a difficult adjustment for some enlistees
Disease: the War’s Most Lethal Enemy • Camp illnesses took many more lives than battlefield deaths
“There Is But Six Now Able for Duty” • Personal accounts of the horror
Technology Reshapes the Battlefield • Modern weaponry made killing far more efficient
“There Is No End to These Horrors” •...